The mutagenicity of a series of acridine compounds was studied in an assay based on the reversion of mutations in the tetracycline-resistance gene (tet) of plasmid pBR322 in Escherichia coli. Mutations that restore the tetracycline-resistant phenotype were detected in tetracycline-sensitive strains carrying mutant plasmids. Mutations that revert by +2, +1, −1, and −2 frameshift mutations and by base-pair substitutions were used to analyze the mutagenicity of two simple acridines, two acridine mustards, and a nitroacridine. The simple acridines (9-aminoacridine and quinacrine) effectively induced −1 frameshifts and weakly induced +1 frameshifts. The acridine mustards (quinacrine mustard and ICR-191) were more potent inducers of −1 and +1 frameshifts than the simple acridines. Reactive acridines, including both the mustards and the nitroacridine Entozon, were effective inducers of −2 frameshifts but the simple acridines were not. The two classes of reactive acridines differed from one another, in that the mustards were better inducers of +1 frameshifts than Entozon, whereas Entozon was a particularly potent inducer of −2 frameshifts. None of the compounds induced +2 frameshifts, and the induction of base-pair substitutions was negligible. These results confirm and extend studies showing that adduct-forming acridines are stronger frameshift mutagens than simple intercalating acridines and that the acridines differ from one another not only in overall mutagenic potency but also in the prevalence of different classes of frameshift mutations.
Hoffman, George R.; Deschênes, Suzanne M.; Manyin, Teresa; and Fuchs, Robert P. P., "Mutagenicity of Acridines in a Reversion Assay Based on Tetracycline Resistance in Plasmid pBR322 in Escherichia Coli" (1996). Biology Faculty Publications. Paper 46.