Sid4: A Secreted Vertebrate Immunoglobulin Protein with Roles in Zebrafish Embryogenesis
The small members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IGSF) are a molecularly diverse group of proteins composed solely of immunoglobulin domains. They may be secreted or tethered to the cell mebrane via GPI linkages and are proposed to have important functions in vivo. However, very few small IGSFs have been functionally characterized. During an ongoing in situ hybridization analysis of expressed sequence tags in zebrafish we identified secreted immunoglobulin domain 4 (sid4), a gene encoding a soluble vertebrate protein composed solely of four immunoglobulin domains.
Throughout development, sid4 is expressed in regions of the embryo undergoing active cell division and migration. Functional analysis using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides demonstrates that timing of gene expression is normal in morphants, but these embryos are smaller and exhibit defects in epiboly and patterning of axial and prechordal mesoderm. Analyses of chordin, pax2, krox20, and dlx2 expression in morphants demonstrate that early brain patterning is normal but later organization of hindbrain neurons and development of cranial neural crest are perturbed.
Levels of apoptosis in morphants were normal prior to 90% epiboly, but were elevated after 10 h post-fertilization (hpf). Apoptosis does not account for early patterning defects of axial mesoderm, but likely contributes to overall reduction in embryo size. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that Sid4 is strikingly similar to the fibronectin binding Ig domains of Perlecan/HSPG2. Overall, our data demonstrate a fundamental role for sid4, possibly as a co-factor in extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, in processes underlying tissue patterning and organogenesis in a vertebrate.
DiIorio, P. et al. "Sid4: A Secreted Vertebrate Immunoglobulin Protein with Roles in Zebrafish Embryogenesis." Developmental Biology 282.1 (2005): 55-69.