Title

Ciência, Educação e Livros Didáticos do Século XIX. Os compêndios das Ciências Naturais do Colégio Pedro II [Science, Education and Textbooks. The Natural Science Compendiums of the College Pedro II]

Document Type

Book

Publication Date

2010

Abstract

A obra apresenta um panorama do ensino de Ciências no Brasil no século XIX, por meio da análise de livros didáticos utilizados no ensino secundário. Toma como referência os compêndios adotados no Colégio de Pedro II, por ser esta a instituição modelo para o ensino secundário público oitocentista no Brasil. Para melhor compreender o significado destas obras, que foram identificadas em programas de ensino que correspondem às reformas educacionais efetuadas pelo Governo Central de 1838 a 1898, o autor insere seu trabalho em uma discussão maior sobre o desenvolvimento histórico das Ciências Naturais e do ensino das Ciências no Colégio e nos liceus franceses. Faz uma análise, também, dos compêndios disponíveis no Brasil e no exterior à época. O conteúdo desse livro interessa, sobretudo, aos professores e pesquisadores em História da Educação e História da Ciência no país e no exterior, especialmente para aqueles que estudam a evolução das Ciências e do ensino das Ciências no Brasil. The book examines the history of science teaching in the secondary school of nineteenth-century Brazil. The discussion is pursued from the perspective of the College Dom Pedro II, which was founded in Rio de Janeiro in 1838 by the emperor of Brazil, whose name honors the school. The royal college was created to attend to the children of the social and economic elites and the functionaries of the Court. On a larger scale, it was intended to serve as a model for public and private secondary institutions scattered throughout the provinces. During the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th century the curriculum of the college provided a standard against which all other secondary schools were measured. The nature of science teaching in the College reflects, in various degrees, the state of science education in Brazilian secondary schools throughout Brazil. This work focuses on the programs of study and the textbooks in eleven sciences, divided into Natural History and the Physical Sciences. Syllabi of science courses, elaborated in response to official directives reforming the curriculum between 1838 and 1899, comprise the sources for the analysis of the science content taught in the College. Thirty-five textbooks were identified and analyzed, and, significantly, the majority of the texts were of French origin. French educational thought, through school manuals, exercised a proportionally large influence on the science curriculum in the College during the 19th century. The content analysis of the science curriculum in the College is complimented by an examination of the historical context of the textbooks. The history of the individual sciences and of science teaching in Brazil and in France is explored. Also, information on precursor and contemporary school manuals circulating in Brazil and in Europe during the 19th century is presented. These discussions provide insight into the pedagogical and editorial trends underlying the development and organization of the science textbooks adopted in the College.