This article discusses theoretical models for effective interpersonal communication in the intranational workplace for public sector managers in the U.S. Effective communication is complete when the message has been understood. A message has been understood when it has been both clearly sent and received. Effective communication is a requisite to every step in the organizational process--from the mutual recognition and understanding of a topic or problem that triggered the communication in the first place to its final resolution. The second classical model of interpersonal communication was published by David Berlo. Berlo elaborated upon the Shannon-Weaver model. He recognized that interpersonal communication was a complex, mutually interactive and often subtle process between human beings. It will become important for each public manager in the U.S. to understand cross-cultural differences among individuals from the different groups who will compose the U.S. workforce. For example, the non-verbal communication patterns of African-Americans and whites may differ. On the other hand, Latino-Americans accord a central place to the inner qualities that given an individual self-worth and earn the respect of others. While cultural differences are generally associated with ethnicity, research indicates that gender differences may be akin to cultural ones.
Kikoski, John F., "Effective Communication in the Intranational Workplace: Models for Public Sector Managers and Theorists" (1993). Government, Politics & Global Studies Faculty Publications. 15.