It is my contention that seeds of a primitive missiology emerged early in the nineteenth century in Germany. This was necessitated by the vitality of the religious awakening known as the Erweckung. At first this missionary impulse was sporadic, ecumenical and individualistic. Johannes Aargaard regarded the ecumenical period of missions on the continent of Europe as lasting from 1800 to 1830 and the period following that as characterized by confessional missionary activity. By the same token he considered the emphasis of continental missions in the early years (1800–1820) to be that of training for missions. After 1820 the emphasis shifted to sending missionaries. By Aargaard’s milestone year of 1830, however, it had taken on a confessional form. It is my purpose to set forth some of the impulses that led at a later date to the systematization of mission theory. There are three aspects that must be considered: the theory of mission, education for mission, and the organization of mission societies.
Detzler, Wayne A., "Seeds of Missiology in the German Erweckung (1815–1848)" (1995). History Faculty Publications. Paper 52.