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Journal News and Special Issues

CALL FOR PAPERS

Special Issue on “The Role of Networking, Entrepreneurial Environments, and Support Systems in the Creation, Survival and Success of Ventures founded by Women, Minority, and Immigrant Entrepreneurs”

Special Issue Editors: SherRhonda Gibbs, The University of Southern Mississippi (sherrhonda.gibbs@usm.edu); John Butler, The University of Texas at Austin (john.butler@mccombs.utexas.edu); Robert Singh, Morgan State University (rsingh@morgan.edu); Crystal Scott, University of Michigan - Dearborn, (cjscott@umich.edu); Nathalie Duval-Couetil, Purdue University (natduval@purdue.edu); Sammie Robinson, Houston Baptist University (slrobinson@hbu.edu)

Important Dates: Submission Deadline: August 1, 2017 Author notified of initial decision: October 1, 2017 Article Revision Due: December 1, 2017 Final Decision Made: December 30, 2017

Summary:

This special issue seeks to develop new theories or expand on existing paradigms and perspectives on how social networks, entrepreneurial environments/ecosystems, and support systems of women, minority and immigrant entrepreneurs impact new venture creation and traditional entrepreneurial concepts such as opportunity recognition, resource acquisition, and entrepreneurial cognitions of these entrepreneurs. We invite empirical or conceptual papers on topics that include, but not limited to those listed below.

Topics/Questions to Explore:

Theories, Paradigms & Perspectives on Entrepreneurship, Alternative Views

  • In the 21st century, what barriers to startup/success limit the potential of these entrepreneurs?
  • What theories best explain venture creation, survival, or failure among women, minority, and immigrant entrepreneurs?
  • Are there important differences between these entrepreneurial groups, the general population, and how they approach entrepreneurship? How might these differences and/or generational status positively/negatively impact creation, survival or success?

Entrepreneurial Environments, Support Systems, and Social Networks

  • What environmental factors, support systems, or types of entrepreneurial ecosystems provide coping mechanisms for challenges faced by these entrepreneurs; and help facilitate success?
  • What unique environmental, social, and personal challenges do these entrepreneurs face with respect to raising capital and securing new venture financing?
  • How can women, minority and immigrant entrepreneurs develop their social networks and social capital to compete for angel and venture capital?
  • How do women, minority, and immigrant entrepreneurs network with others, develop their social networks and build social capital both before founding and after founding their ventures.

Entrepreneurial Groups, Processes, Cognition, Social Responsibility

  • Are there distinctive idea identification and opportunity recognition processes utilized by women, minority and immigrant entrepreneurs?
  • How cognitions, cognitive processes, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy for these entrepreneurs are impacted by the environments they live in and the social network contacts they interact with.
  • What role does social responsibility play in ventures created by women, minorities, and immigrants?
  • How do women, minority and immigrant entrepreneurs approach succession planning?

Literature:

Of the 27.9 million small businesses in the U.S., 8 million are minority-owned (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2012). These firms add $1 trillion in economic output to the economy, lead the nation in exporting, and enhance the global competitive advantage of the U.S. (MBDA, 2012). A recent report on the state of women-owned businesses indicated that women-owned firms in the U.S. totaled 11.3 million (6.3 million firms were owned by non-minority women), and generated $1.6 trillion in sales (Womenable, 2016). According to the report, women-owned firms increased by 45 percent compared to a 9 percent increase for all businesses. Similarly, immigrant businesses contribute $775 billion to U.S. gross domestic product, employ one out of every ten American workers (NAE, 2012), are twice as likely to start a business as native-born Americans (Stangler & Wiens, 2015). These statistics show that minority, women and immigrant entrepreneurs are fueling entrepreneurial growth in the U.S.

Scholars agree that entrepreneurs need nurturing entrepreneurial environments, appropriate support systems (Isenberg, 2011), and meaningful social networks for the provision of information and resources to create and grow viable new enterprises (Levenstein, 1995; Singh, 2000; Chrisman, Bauerschmidt, & Hofer, 2011). Whether the entrepreneurs of interest to this Special Issue fully benefit from networks or support systems remains unclear. Researchers intimate that the composition of minority social networks - often based on family, kinship, racial, ethnic, or religious identifications - may account for differences in the patterns of entrepreneurship (Butler, 1991; Levenstein, 1995; Light, 1972). A desirable outcome for the Special Issue are contributions that demonstrate how minority, women and immigrants (MWI’s) might fully leverage social networks, or frameworks that enable policymakers and practitioners to develop proper support systems and entrepreneurial environments for MWI’s to survive and thrive. Isenberg (2010) describes ideal entrepreneurial ecosystems that include leadership, culture, capital markets, and customers which can be adapted based upon regional variations, geographic conditions, and the concentration of relevant industrial clusters in a location. He claims this is achievable even in the most isolated environments, if regions focus on their natural strengths (and resources), maintain the right combination of public-private-university partnerships, and recruit seasoned entrepreneurs willing to serve as mentors and advisors.

Ecosystem benefits may be fleeting for MWI’s whose support systems and social networks may be poorly developed or insular. Thus, we must acknowledge and take stock of the unique challenges and obstacles often encountered by MWI’s. While entrepreneurial activity among minority entrepreneurs is high, failure rates consistently exceed that of other groups (Dadzie & Cho, 1989; Sullivan, 2007). Minority-owned firms tend to be smaller and less profitable than their white counterparts (Edelman, Brush, Manolova & Greene, 2010). Entrepreneurship scholars attribute low survival rates to factors such as education, access to capital, lack of financial resources, work experience, credit market discrimination, lack of role models and uncontrollable external constraints, to name a few (see Dadzie & Cho, 1989; Sullivan, 2007; Köllinger & Minniti, 2006). Statistics also show that women entrepreneurs have smaller firms, lower survival and profitability rates than their male counterparts (Fairlie & Robb, 2009). Persistent gender gaps that exist are attributed to access to resources, human capital, prior work experience, startup capital, the masculine culture of entrepreneurship, and type of industry (Greene, Hart, Gatewood et al., 2003; Fairlie & Robb, 2009). Women entrepreneurs are often erroneously characterized as not pursuing venture capital, lacking suitable networks, and avoiding ownership of high growth ventures (Menzies, Diochon, & Gasse, 2004; Brush, Carter, Gatewood, et al., 2001). Consequently, many have called for initiatives and policies to overcome gender gaps in entrepreneurship (Greene, Hart, Gatewood et al., 2003). Exploring women’s social networks and the entrepreneurial support systems in which they operate may serve to dispel myths, and level the playing field for women-owned businesses.

Immigrants’ energy and intellectual capital are needed in the labor market. Research has found differences between immigrant and non-immigrant entrepreneurs. In 2010, over 40 percent of the Fortune 500 companies were founded by immigrants, or their children (Stangler & Wiens, 2015). Given their impact on the U.S. economy, we consider ethnic minority immigrants in particular, an important group to study. As the population and demographic makeup of the U.S. (and industrialized nations) continues to change, it will become more and more important to better understand differences between subgroups in terms of their economic activity, networks, and support systems. Specific groups of interest for the Special Issue include: Women, Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, African Immigrants, Afro-Caribbean Immigrants, Latino Immigrants, ethnic-minority entrepreneurs, and ethnic-immigrant entrepreneurs.

References:

Brush, C., Carter, N. M., Gatewood, E. J., Greene, P. G., & Hart, M. (2009). The Diana Project: Women business owners and equity capital: The myths dispelled. Babson College Center for Entrepreneurship Research Paper, (2009-11).

Butler, J. S. (1991). Entrepreneurship and Self-Help Among Black Americans: A Reconsideration of Race and Economics, State University of New York Press: Albany.

Chrisman, J. J., Bauerschmidt, A., & Hofer, C. W. (1998). The determinants of new venture performance: An extended model. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 23, 5-30.

Dadzie, K. Q., & Cho, Y. (1989). Determinants of minority business formation and survival: An empirical assessment. Journal of Small Business Management, 27(3), 56.

Edelman, L. F., Brush, C. G., Manolova, T. S., & Greene, P. G. (2010). Start‐up motivations and growth intentions of minority nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 48(2), 174-196.

Fairlie, R. W., & Robb, A. M. (2009). Gender differences in business performance: evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners survey. Small Business Economics, 33(4), 375-395.

Greene, P. G., Hart, M. M., Gatewood, E. J., Brush, C. G., & Carter, N. M. (2003). Women entrepreneurs: Moving front and center: An overview of research and theory. Coleman White Paper Series, 3, 1-47.

Isenberg, D. J. (2010). How to start an entrepreneurial revolution. Harvard Business Review, 88(6), pp.40-50.

Isenberg, D. (2011). The entrepreneurship ecosystem strategy as a new paradigm for economy policy: principles for cultivating entrepreneurship Babson Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Project, Babson College, Babson Park: MA.

Köllinger, P. & Minniti, M. (2006). Not for a lack of trying: American entrepreneurship in black and white. Small Business Economics, 27, 59 – 79.

Light, I. (1972). Ethnic Enterprise in America, Berkeley, CA.

Levenstein, M. (1995). African American entrepreneurship: The view from the 1910 census. Business and Economic History, 24(1), 106-122.

Menzies, T. V., Diochon, M., & Gasse, Y. (2004). Examining venture-related myths concerning women entrepreneurs. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 9(2), 89.

Minority Business Development Agency (2012). Minority-Owned Firms Lead the Nation in Exporting. Retrieved December 28, 2016 from http://www.mbda.gov/sites/default/files/MinorityOwnedFirmsLeadExportsFinal.pdf.

New American Economy (2012). Open For Business: How Immigrants are Driving Small Business Creation in the United States. Retrieved December 29, 2016 from http://www.renewoureconomy.org/research/open-for-business-how-immigrants-are-driving-small-business-creation-in-the-united-states-2/.

Singh, R. P. (2000). Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition through Social Networks. New York, NY: Garland Publishing.

Stangler, D., & Wiens, J. (2015). The Economic Case for Welcoming Immigrant Entrepreneurs. Retrieved January 4, 2017 from http://www.kauffman.org/what-we-do/resources/entrepreneurship-policy-digest/the-economic-case-for-welcoming-immigrant-entrepreneurs.

Sullivan, D. M. (2007). Minority entrepreneurs: More likely to try, but less likely to succeed?. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 21(1), 78-79.

U.S. Department of Commerce (2012). 2007 and 2012 Survey of Business Owners. Retrieved December 20, 2016 from http://www.mbda.gov/sites/default/files/2012SBO_MBEFactSheet020216.pdf.

Womenable (2016). The 2016 State of Women-Owned Businesses Report. Retrieved January 2, 2017 from http://www.womenable.com/70/the-state-of-women-owned-businesses-in-the-u.s.:-2016.

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship
Special Issue “Corporate Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets”


Guest Editors:
Crystal Jiang Ph.D., Bryant University, cjiang1@bryant.edu
Irem Demirkan Ph.D., Loyola University Maryland, idemirkan@loyola.edu
Qin Yang Ph.D., Robert Morris University, yang@rmu.edu

Submission deadline: September 15, 2017

Special Issue Theme Background

This New England Journal of Entrepreneurship (NEJE) special issue on ‘Corporate Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets’ aims to explore key features of the corporate entrepreneurship in emerging economies.

It is widely accepted in the literature that corporate entrepreneurship encompasses two main phenomena of innovation and venturing (Yiu & Lau, 2008). While innovation refers to introduction of new products and production processes for improved firm performance, the focus on venturing is the creation of new businesses.

Corporate entrepreneurship can be a necessary driver for economic growth, new sources of employment, and an important source for reducing economic disparity. Contextual factors and social mechanisms are very important for entrepreneurship (Antio, Kenney, Mustar, Siegel & Wright, 2014; van Burg & Romme, 2014). For instance, firms’ corporate entrepreneurship interplays with government institutions (Holmes, Zahra, Hoskisson, DeGhetto & Sutton, 2016). However, studies focusing on corporate entrepreneurship, specifically those look into the roles of innovation and new venture creation have been neglected in emerging economies nations. Although corporate entrepreneurship can make a big difference in the firm competitiveness of emerging markets (Bruton, Ahlstrom & Obloj, 2008; Guo, Jiang, & Yang, 2014), the literature is still lacking in exploring the dynamics of corporate entrepreneurship in these contexts (e.g., De Clercq, Danis & Dakhli, 2010; Kiss, Danis & Cavusgil, 2012).

Emerging markets are defined as low-income, rapid-growth countries where government policies encourage economic liberalization. Emerging markets includes 51 developing countries in Asia, Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East and 13 transition economies (Hoskisson, Eden, Lau, & Wright, 2000). Emerging markets offer not only market potential but also a competitive advantage of their own as they become increasingly integrated into the global economy. Moreover during the last decade, emerging markets have assumed a prominent position in the global economy and they account for more than half of world GDP (IMF). Owning to their weak legal environment and resource deficiency, emerging market firms have been found to access to all possible sources of competitive strength (Contractor, 2013) and exploit unique firm-specific advantages for corporate entrepreneurship activities (Jiang, Yang, Song, & Annavarjula, 2016; Kotabe, Jiang, & Murray, 2016; Luo & Rui, 2010). Therefore, the need to open up the issue of corporate entrepreneurship as a significant source of firm competitiveness in these economies will fill an important void not only in corporate entrepreneurship, but also in emerging market management literatures.

Overall, the guest editors hope that the NEJE special issue will contribute to establishing the groundwork for corporate entrepreneurship in emerging markets that potentially inform both management research and practice for the future.

Potential Research Questions

The following list of research questions is neither intended to be exhaustive nor complete.

  • How does unique setting of emerging markets foster corporate entrepreneurship?
  • What are the processes of corporate entrepreneurship of firms in emerging markets?
  • How do technological forces drive the process of innovation in emerging markets?
  • What are the implications of government involvement in emerging markets on corporate entrepreneurship? How can firms from emerging markets create and protect their propriety technologies while competing globally?
  • How can firms from emerging markets benefit from the pursuit of corporate entrepreneurship?
  • Do firm characteristics matter in the pursuit of its corporate entrepreneurship from emerging markets including but not limited to firm size, firm age, industry, geographical locations, and among others? Do differences in ownership (ex. State owned enterprises, family businesses, business groups) common to emerging markets matter in pursuit of corporate entrepreneurship?
  • Does internationalization of firms from emerging markets stimulate corporate entrepreneurship? Why and how?
  • Are multinational corporations operating in emerging markets in a more favorable position than local firms in the pursuit of corporate entrepreneurship?
  • Compared with developed economies, does the nature of corporate entrepreneurship change in some way in emerging economies?

Questions about the special issue may be directed to any of the guest editors: Crystal Jiang (cjiang1@bryant.edu), Irem Demirkan (idemirkan@loyola.edu), and Qin Yang (yang@rmu.edu).

Notes for Prospective Authors:

Submitted papers should not have been previously published nor be currently under consideration for publication elsewhere.

All papers are refereed through a double-blind rigorous developmental peer review process.

All papers must be submitted online. Submission guidelines are available at http://digitalcommons.sacredheart.edu/neje/policies.html.

Important Dates:

Submission of manuscripts: September 15, 2017

Notification to authors: November 15, 2017

Final versions due: January 31, 2018

Publication date: Spring, 2018

References:

Autio, E., Kenney, M., Mustar, P., Siegel, D., & Wright, M. (2014). Entrepreneurial innovation: The importance of context, Research Policy, 43(7), 1097-1108.

Bruton, G., Ahlstrom, D., & Obloj, K. (2008). Entrepreneurship in emerging economics: where are we today and where should the research go in the future? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(1), 1-14.

Contractor, F. (2013). “Punching above their weight”: The sources of competitive advantage for emerging market multinationals, International Journal of Emerging Markets, 8(4), 304-328.

De Clercq, D., Danis, W., & Dakhli, M. (2010). The moderating effect of institutional context on the relationship between associational activity and new business activity in emerging economies, International Business Review, 19(1), 85-101.

Guo, C., Jiang, C., Yang, Q. (2014). The development of organizational capabilities and corporate entrepreneurial processes: The case of Chinese automobile firms. Thunderbird International Business Review, 56(6): 483-500.

Holmes, R.M., Zahra, S.A., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2016). Two-way streets:Tthe role of institutions and technology policy in firms’ corporate entrepreneurship and political strategies, Academy of Management Perspectives, 30(3), 247-272.

Hoskisson, R.E., Eden, L., Lau, C.M., & Wright, M. (2000). Strategy in emerging economies. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 249-267.

Jiang,C., Yang, Q., Song, S., Annavarjula, M. (2016). Emerging market firms’ catch-up strategy in new product development: Cases from Chinese companies. International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets, 8(3): 324-339.

Kiss, A., Danis, W., & Cavusgil, S. (2012). International entrepreneurship research in emerging economies: A critical review and research agenda, Journal of Business Venturing, 27(2), 266-290.

Kotabe, M., Jiang, C., & Murray, J. (forthcoming). Examining the complementary effect of political networking capability with absorptive capacity on the innovative performance of emerging-market firms. Journal of Management (online available).

Luo, Y., & Rui, H. (2010). An ambidexterity perspective toward multinational enterprises from emerging economies. Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(4), 49-70.

Van Burg, E., & Romme, A. (2014). Creating the future together: Toward a framework for research synthesis in entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 38(2), 369-397.

Yiu, D., & Lau, C.M. (2008). Corporate entrepreneurship as resource capital configuration in emerging market firms. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 32, 37-58.