BACKGROUND: Mortality rates for coronary heart disease are higher in blacks than in whites. OBJECTIVES: To examine differences between blacks and whites in the manifestation of symptoms of coronary heart disease and in delay in seeking treatment. METHODS: Patients were directly observed as they came to an emergency department with symptoms suggestive of coronary heart disease. The sample included 40 blacks and 191 whites with a final diagnosis of angina or acute myocardial infarction. RESULTS: After controlling for pertinent demographic and clinical characteristics, logistic regression analysis revealed that blacks were more likely than whites to have shortness of breath (odds ratio = 3.16; 95% CI = 1.49-6.71; P = .003) and left-sided chest pain (odds ratio = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.10-5.91; P =.03). Blacks delayed a mean of 26.8 hours (SD = 30.3; median = 11 hours), whereas whites delayed a mean of 24.4 hours (SD = 41.7; median = 5 hours) in seeking care. Mean delay time was not significantly different for blacks and whites; differences in median delay time were of borderline significance (P = .05). CONCLUSIONS: Blacks were more likely than whites to have shortness of breath and left-sided chest pain as the presenting symptoms of coronary heart disease. Differences in delay in seeking treatment were not significant, although blacks tended to delay longer than did whites. The relatively small number of blacks may account for the lack of observed racial differences in both initial symptoms and in delay in seeking treatment.
Richards, Sally B., Funk, Marjorie, Milner, Kerry. "Differences Between Blacks and Whites With Coronary Heart Disease in Initial Symptoms and in Delay in Seeking Care." American Journal of Critical Care 9.4 (2000): 237-244.