Heat exposure and hypohydration induce physiological and psychological strain during exercise; however, it is unknown if the separate effects of heat exposure and hypohydration are synergistic when co-occurring during loaded exercise. This study compared separate and combined effects of heat exposure and hypohydration on physiological strain, mood state, and visual vigilance during loaded exercise. Twelve males (mean±SD; age, 20±2 years; body mass, 74.0±8.2 kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 57.0±6.0 mLkg-1min-1) completed 4 trials under the following conditions: euhydrated temperate (EUT), hypohydrated temperate (HYT), euhydrated hot (EUH), and hypohydrated hot (HYH). Exercise was 90 min of treadmill walking (∼50% VO2 max, 5% grade) while carrying a 45 lb rucksack. Profile of Mood States and the Scanning Visual Vigilance Test were completed pre and post exercise. The separate effects of heat exposure (EUH) and hypohydration (HYT) on post-exercise Tre were similar (38.25±0.63°C vs. 38.22±0.29°C, respectively, p>0.05), while in combination (HYH), post-exercise Tre was far greater (39.32±0.43°C). Increase in Tre per 1% body mass loss (BML) for HYH (vs. EUH) was greater than HYT (vs. EUT) (0.32°C vs. 0.04°C, respectively, p=0.02); HR increase per 1% BML for HYH (vs. EUH) was 7 bpm compared to HYT (vs. EUT) at 3 bpm (p=0.30). HYH induced greater mood disturbance (post-pre exercise) (35±21 units) compared to other conditions (EUT=3±9 units; HYT=3±16 units; EUH=16±26 units; p0.05). Independently, heat exposure and hypohydration induced similar physiological strain during loaded exercise; when combined, heat exposure with hypohydration, synergistically exacerbated physiological strain and mood disturbance.
Adams, E.L., Casa, D.J., Huggins, R.A., DeMartini, J.K., Stearns, R.L., Kennedy, R.M. ... Maresh, C.M. (2017). Heat exposure and hypohydration exacerbate physiological strain during load carrying. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. Published ahead of print February 8 2017. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001831