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Late-talking and normally speaking toddlers with and without histories of middle ear involvement were followed for 2 years to assess speech and expressive language outcomes. Results revealed no differences in expressive language outcome that could be attributed to history of middle ear involvement in either group. There did seem to be differences in outcome on measures of articulation that were associated with history of middle ear involvement. The implications of these findings for treatment of otitis media and for referral of late-talking toddlers for speech and language services are discussed.


Published: Paul, Rhea, Lynn, T.F., Lohr-Flanders, M. "History of Middle Ear Involvement and Speech/Language Development in Late Talkers." Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 36.5 (1993): 1055-1062.