The Longitudinal Course of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate predictors of persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a large sample of children with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) with and without ADHD followed prospectively into adolescence. STUDY DESIGN: Children with VCFS with (n = 37) and without (n = 35) ADHD who were on average 11 years old at the baseline assessment and 15 years old at the follow-up assessment were comprehensively assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and assessments of behavioral, cognitive, social, school, and family functioning. Control participants both with and without ADHD were also followed prospectively. RESULTS: In adolescence, 65% of children with VCFS continued to have findings consistent with ADHD. Childhood predictors of persistence were higher rates of familial ADHD, having childhood depression, having higher levels of hyperactivity, and a larger number of intrusion errors on a verbal list learning test at baseline. Approximately 15% of children with VCFS who did not have ADHD at Time 1 met diagnostic criteria for ADHD at Time 2. All of these children had subthreshold ADHD symptoms at Time 1. CONCLUSIONS: These findings prospectively confirm that persistence of ADHD into adolescence in VCFS is predicted by childhood variables that have been previously documented in the non-VCFS ADHD literature.
Antshel, Kevin M. et al. "The Longitudinal Course of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome." The Journal of Pediatrics 163.1 (2013): 187-193.