Document Type


Publication Date

April 2005


This paper describes the methodology of Object Teaching and relates how its appearance in Brazil was a transnational phenomenon that achieved its maximum articulation in 1886 with Rui Barbosa’s translation of Norman Calkins’ Primary Object Lessons. It begins with an overview of primary school teaching in Brazil in the second half of the 19th century, followed by discussion of Barbosa’s ideas on promoting change in the schools. Central to the exposition are the ideas contained in a report that Barbosa submitted to the National Assembly in 1882, in which he proposed a new organization of primary school education, suggestions for making the primary school curriculum more comprehensive, and a child-centered methodology that advocated Object Lessons as an alternative to the rigid and verbally-oriented instruction offered in the schools of the period.



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