Document Type


Publication Date



This study explored the nature of teacher-student interaction from the perspective of eight virtual school teachers in an asynchronous, self-paced, statewide, supplemental virtual high school. Teacher interviews revealed the majority of interactions were student-initiated and instructional in nature. The main procedural interactions focused on notifications sent to inactive students. Social interactions were minimal and viewed as having little pedagogical value. Institutional barriers such as class size and an absence of effective tracking mechanisms limited the amount and types of interaction teachers engaged in. Study implications and future research are discussed.


Published: Hawkins, A., Barbour, M. K., & Graham, C. (2011). Strictly business: Teacher perceptions of interaction in virtual schooling. Journal of Distance Education, 25(2).

At the time of publication Michael K. Barbour was affiliated with Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. The version posted here is the author's copy.