Writing to Learn in Science Using the 3D + U(DL) Sensemaking Model

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Book Chapter

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This chapter presents a research-based model for integrating writing to learn approaches in science class. The strategies described in this chapter depict an in-depth integration of writing to support content learning and to develop students' knowledge and skill in writing science-specific genres such as argument-based explanation. This offers educators a solution to align science and literacy standards and emphasize discipline-specific writing approaches to bolster learning, and ensures that writing is accessible to all students, including students with exceptionalities. The 3D +U(DL) sensemaking model for writing in science seamlessly integrates four major components that support students' writing and learning: NGSS 3D learning, disciplinary literacy (DL), Universal Design for Learning (UDL), and sensemaking through the 5E learning cycle. The model can be implemented in any science or STEM/STEAM classroom from Grades 3 to 12; however, the example provided in the chapter is from a middle school science classroom.


In Handbook of Research on Writing Instruction Practices for Equitable and Effective Teaching.

ISBN: 9781668437452, eBook: 9781668437469