Most work in the field of inductive inference regards the learning machine to be a passive recipient of data. In a prior paper the passive approach was compared to an active form of learning where the machine is allowed to ask questions. In this paper we continue the study of machines that ask questions by comparing such machines to teams of passive machines. This yields, via work of Pitt and Smith, a comparison of active learning with probabilistic learning. Also considered are query inference machines that learn an approximation of what is desired. The approximation differs from the desired result in finitely many anomalous places.
Gasarch, William I. et al. "Learning via Queries with Teams and Anomalies." Fundamenta Informaticae 23.1 (1995): 67-89.