Video Steganography Techniques: Taxonomy, Challenges, and Future Directions

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Nowadays, video steganography has become important in many security applications. The performance of any steganographic method ultimately relies on the imperceptibility, hiding capacity, and robustness. In the past decade, many video steganography methods have been proposed; however, the literature lacks of sufficient survey articles that discuss all techniques. This paper presents a comprehensive study and analysis of numerous cutting edge video steganography methods and their performance evaluations from literature. Both compressed and raw video steganographic methods are surveyed. In the compressed domain, video steganographic techniques are categorized according to the video compression stages as venues for data hiding such as intra frame prediction, inter frame prediction, motion vectors, transformed and quantized coefficients, and entropy coding. On the other hand, raw video steganographic methods are classified into spatial and transform domains. This survey suggests current research directions and recommendations to improve on existing video steganographic techniques.