Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



In health, the gold standard is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.This state is weakened by physical inactivity, which involves a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, depression, and obesity. Moreover, 6% to 10% of all deaths from non-communicable diseases worldwide can be attributed to physical inactivity. These adverse effects of physical activity provide evidence that physically active individuals are closer to the gold standard of health than inactive individuals. Therefore, physical activity – not inactivity – should be the standard reference behavior. In this framework, physical inactivity is a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's behavior, which is the definition of a behavioral disorder. Therefore, physical inactivity should be treated as such.


Version posted is the authors' accepted manuscript.

The final version will be available on the publisher website at

PMID: 31944246





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