A study restates and then extends a thesis about the performance appraisal process first published almost 15 years ago - that the public manager's performance in the face-to-face encounter of the appraisal interview itself is the Achilles' heel of the entire process. This 1983 article held that many public managers experience discomfort approaching the actual performance appraisal interview and difficulty in conducting it. They are usually untrained and may even be unaware of the scholarly work that has identified the skills that make for more effective face-to-face communication. The 1983 article also presented 6 specific microcommunication skills to help public managers communicate more effectively in the performance appraisal interview.
Kikoski, John F. "Effective Communication in the Performance Appraisal Interview: Face-to-Face Communication for Public Managers in the Culturally Diverse Workplace." Public Personnel Management 27.4 (Winter 1998): 491-513.