Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Document Type



cognitive complexity, cognitive development, counselor education

Subject Area

Clinical Supervision, Counseling, Counselor Education


Cognitive complexity has found a small yet established niche in the counseling and counselor education literature over the last 40 years. This body of research has highlighted how individuals with high cognitive complexity have greater consistency in empathy, show more varied responses to clients, demonstrate greater toleration of ambiguity, and show higher frequencies of unbiased clinical judgements towards clients. This article provides a systematic and critical review of the cognitive complexity literature and discusses future implications of cultivating cognitive complexity in emerging and professional counselors and supervisors.



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