Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Document Type



counselors-in-training, empathy, theoretical orientation, and theoretical orientation selection

Subject Area

Counseling, Counselor Education, Higher Education Counseling, Mental Health Counseling


This study examined the relationship between theoretical orientation and empathy levels of a group of 166 counselors-in-training. Participants’ responses to the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ) and the Theoretical Evaluation Self-Test (TEST) were collected and analyzed. Only individual items from the TEQ were found to have a relationship with the theoretical orientation inclination responses on the TEST. However, a trend between humanistic theories and counselors-in-training theoretical orientation inclination seems to exist. The study concluded that counselors-in-training might need to develop self-awareness before selecting a theoretical orientation that fit. Incongruences were found between theoretical orientation selected in the demographic questionnaire and the results of the TEST. Implications for counselor educators and future research recommendations are discussed.



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