Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Document Type

Empirical Research Article


transitional dynamics, clinical supervision, Markov chain analysis, trainee experience

Subject Area

Clinical Supervision, Counselor Education


In this study, we explored transitional dynamics (i.e., movement patterns between six common supervision events) of the supervision process using transcripts of 20 actual supervision sessions in naturalistic settings. Specifically, we first proposed an events-based framework to conceptualize the supervision process. We then provided a step-by-step protocol to perform Markov chain analysis, which is an innovative and useful means to study ongoing processes. Next, we identified transitional dynamics of the entire sample and then detected statistically different verbal interactional patterns for the dyads with longer or shorter trainee experience. Results of this study provided insights on supervision process features for clinical supervisors and counselor educators.





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