Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Document Type

Empirical Research Article


master's supervisees, individual supervision, cognitive development theory, deliberate psychological education

Subject Area

Clinical Supervision


The researchers qualitatively investigated the individual supervision experiences of nine masters’ students who were supervised by university-based supervisors, who used a cognitive developmental supervision process. The participants indicated that supervisors using Deliberate Psychological Education (a) provided a supportive environment, (b) cultivated counselor identity development, (c) encouraged personal growth, and (d) offered a space for concurrent development. The authors discuss the implications and limitations for counselor educators and clinical supervisors.





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