Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Document Type

Empirical Research Article


distance education, learning outcomes, social presence

Subject Area

Counselor Education


Outcome research in online counselor education is lacking as is the focus on online teaching andragogy. To address this gap, the Community of Inquiry framework and social presence are discussed within the context of online learning in a counselor education program. Data were collected in a counselor education program in the mid-Atlantic comparing online and on-campus learning outcomes and perceptions of social presence in the classroom. On-campus learners had significantly higher perceptions of social presence when compared with online learners, although perceived level of social presence was not correlated with learning outcomes. Implications for counselor education are discussed.



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