Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Document Type



clinical supervision, interpersonal theory, parallel process, discrimination model, theory development, supervisory working alliance

Subject Area

Clinical Supervision, Counseling, Counselor Education


This manuscript explores the theory development of a new clinical supervision model called the Interpersonal Discrimination Model (IPDM). The IPDM combines the structure of the Discrimination Model of supervision (Bernard, 1979) with Interpersonal Theory tenets developed by Harry Sullivan (1968) to create a holistic, integrated approach to clinical supervision. The IPDM’s foundation is based on the supervisory working alliance, which has been continuously found to contribute to supervisee satisfaction, an increase in counselor self-efficacy and a positive therapeutic working alliance (Park et al., 2019). The IPDM has three main applications-interpersonal process recall, the parallel process, countertransference-that are applied in clinical supervision to enhance supervisees’ self-awareness and to improve client outcomes. This manuscript explores a) a literature review on the supervisory working alliance and relational approaches to clinical supervision, b) an introduction and rationale for the IPDM and the integration of Interpersonal Theory within the Discrimination Model, and c) application of the IPDM in a case study including strategies and recommendations of how to intervene utilizing the model.



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