Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Document Type



Supervision, Creativity, Integrated Developmental Model, Counseling Supervision

Subject Area

Counselor Education


Clinical supervision is a primary task of the professional counseling supervisor. The American Counseling Association (2014) Code of Ethics includes requirements for supervisors to be competent in the delivery of supervision. The Integrated Developmental Model (IDM) (McNeill & Stoltenberg, 2015; Stoltenberg & Delworth, 1987) is a widely accepted supervision model (Salvador, 2016) that can be utilized to conceptualize supervisees’ levels of expertise and corresponding skills. The use of creativity in supervision has been reported to improve counselor insight and resulting conceptualizations of and relationships with clients (Lahad, 2000). The IDM of supervision, in conjunction with creative interventions can be implemented by supervisors to engage supervisees in their own learning and to improve their self-awareness and professional development (Neswald-McCalip et al., 2003). The authors will identify the IDM of supervision tenets, discuss the use of creativity in supervision, and provide case studies demonstrating the combined use of these elements at each level of the IDM.

KEYWORDS: Supervision, Creativity, Integrated Developmental Model of Supervision, Counseling Supervision



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