Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Document Type



anxiety, supervision models, supervisee, COVID-19, counseling

Subject Area

Clinical Supervision, Counseling, Counselor Education


Graduate counseling supervisees are experiencing unprecedented obstacles, compounding stressors, and heightened anxiety amidst the global COVID-19 pandemic. If not addressed, excessive anxiety can impede professional growth and limit the competence of future counselors. While theoretical-based models of supervision exist, the application of such models has not been fully explored in relation to addressing supervisee anxiety. Prompt and pointed action is needed from counseling supervisors, who are professionally and ethically responsible for training future counselors and the gatekeeping process. Three supervision models, including the Integrative Developmental Model, Solution-Focused Supervision, and Cognitive-Behavioral Supervision, are utilized to address heightened anxiety among counseling supervisees. Implications for counseling faculty supervisors and future research are included.



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