Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Document Type

Empirical Research Article


school counseling, creative supervision, single-case research

Subject Area

Clinical Supervision, Counselor Education


School counselors are tasked with multiple roles and responsibilities in their schools to address the needs of all students (American School Counseling Association, 2019). Due to the variety of work that school counselors are responsible for, it is vital for them to have a high belief in their ability to successfully complete their job. This belief in their ability to successfully complete their work is called counselor self-efficacy (Oh et al., 2019). The development of a school counselors self-efficacy begins in their counselor education program, which involves classroom learning and counseling supervision. Although there are multiple models of counseling supervision to meet the needs of supervisees (Bernard & Goodyear, 2019), they are not one-size fits all (Graham et al., 2014), and specialties like school counseling need special attention. There are multiple models of school counseling supervision (Bernard & Luke, 2015; Lambie & Sias, 2009; Ockerman et al., 2013); however, there should be more creativity infused in them (Koltz, 2008). It is important for school counselor supervisors to have multiple creative interventions, like bibliosupervision (Brown & Carrola, 2020; Graham et al., 2014), to utilize with their supervisees to assist them with the development of their self-efficacy. This article utilized a single-case research design to assess the impact of bibliosupervision on school counselors-in-training self-efficacy.



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