Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Document Type

Empirical Research Article


Counseling supervision, Non-suicidal self-injury, Suicide, Risk-communication, Supervision model

Subject Area

Clinical Supervision, Counseling, Counselor Education


This grounded theory study examines the supervision needs of counselors-in-training (CITs) addressing clients with non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal ideations. The qualitative research question focused on counselor-in-training perception of their counseling program and practicum supervision preparation. Four key themes emerge: Supervision Facilitation, Secure Base Provision, Clinical Identity Development, and Sufficient Preparation. CITs express readiness concerns and a need for enhanced support in supervision for NSSI and SI. CITs also clarify logistical and emotional support that addresses their needs to serve NSSI and SI clients effectively.

Public Significance Statement

This study reveals gaps in how counselors-in-training are prepared to work with self-injury and suicidal clients. It highlights the crucial role of responsive supervision and proposes a "Bridge to Safety" model for enhancing training on risk communication and support structures



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.