Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Document Type



Technology, counselor education, self-efficacy, technology gap, non-traditional students


As advancements in technology continue to revolutionize the field of counseling, certain populations of students still encounter difficulties incorporating technology in the classroom. Non-traditional students, many who possesses years of professional experience, struggle academically due to a lack of technological expertise and knowledge. Low technological expertise potentially decreases students’ self-efficacy, enjoyment, and performance (Baturay & Bay, 2010). Consequently, it is imperative that counselor educators use a variety of strategies with non-traditional students struggling with technology. Thus, the purpose of this article is to propose guidelines encompassing self-efficacy, the evolution of technology and competencies required for assisting students in the classroom.





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