Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Document Type



parent involvement, parent participation, parent consultation, Discrimination Model

Subject Area

Counseling, Counselor Education, Mental Health Counseling, School Counseling


This paper introduces a theoretical map conceptualizing parent involvement in the child counseling process by applying the roles from Bernard’s Discrimination Model (DM). Semi-structured interviews with experts in child counseling and copyrighted DVDs were collected as data. A framework approach through the DM is utilized to analyze data to offer the conceptual structure of parent involvement. As a result, the three different roles—counselor, teacher, and consultant—and tasks for each role when engaging parents for child counseling are identified. Discussions about the meaning and limitations of this study are included.





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