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In the last few decades, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) applications have been shaping the field of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) paved the way for ubiquitous learning. The advent of new technologies in the early 21st century also added a social dimension to ICT that allowed for Networked Learning (NL). Given that language learning is fundamentally a socio-cultural experience, networked learning capabilities have provided the potential for language learning in community settings. This has revitalized the earlier frameworks provided by CALL. NL has empowered language learners today to connect globally, to access Open Educational Resources, and to self-regulate their learning processes beyond the scope of traditional curricula. In parallel, the rising pervasiveness of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications and their relevance to language learning has led CALL to branch out into Intelligent CALL (ICALL). The first section of this article provides a brief historical overview of CALL, examines it through the lens of ICT, networked learning, and open access. The second section focuses on the implications of AI for creating new trends in second language education, the challenge for providing customization at scale, and raises important issues related to transparency and privacy for future research.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.