This article contextualizes issues of race and Orientalism in the career of Japanese actress Tsuru Aoki within changing representational strategies and ongoing cultural struggles over the public and domestic roles of women in the modern age. According to the author, Aoki's persona blurred the boundaries between Japanese and U.S. identities.
Ross, Sara. "The Americanization of Tsuru Aoki: Orientalism, Melodrama, Star Image, and the New Woman." Camera Obscura 20:3(60) (2005): 129-158.