Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date

2020

Abstract

Objective

Open visitation in adult intensive care units has been associated with improved family and patient outcomes. However, worldwide adoption of this practice has been slow and reasons for this are unclear. This study documents barriers and strategies for implementing and sustaining open visitation in adult intensive care units in the United States experienced by nursing leadership.

Research design

Qualitative approach using grounded theory.

Participants

Nurse leaders in adult intensive care units with open visitation.

Setting

Magnet® or Pathway to Excellence® designated hospitals in the United States.

Methods

Semi structured interviews were conducted with 19 nurse leaders from 15 geographically dispersed hospitals. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and imported into Atlas.ti qualitative software for analysis. Grounded theory constant comparison analysis was used for coding and category development.

Findings

The analysis revealed three barriers; nursing attitudes and clinical and nonclinical barriers. Strategies to overcome these barriers were empathy, evidence-based practice, models of care, shared governance, nurse discretion, security and family spaces.

Conclusion

Intensive care nursing leadership experienced distinct barriers and strategies during pre-implementation, implementation and sustainment of open visitation. Other nursing leaders interested in open visitation can use these findings as they plan this transition in their intensive care units.

Comments

Online ahead of print August 24, 2020. Free PMC article.

DOI

10.1016/j.iccn.2020.102927

PMID

32855008

Publication

Intensive and Critical Care Nursing

Publisher

Elsevier

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