In local effective potential energy theories such as the Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham density functional theory (HKS-DFT) and quantal density functional theory (Q-DFT) electronic systems in their ground or excited states are mapped to model systems of noninteracting fermions with equivalent density. From these models, the equivalent total energy and ionization potential are also obtained. This paper concerns the nonuniqueness of the local effective potential energy function of the model system in the mapping from a nondegenerate ground state, the nonuniqueness of the local effective potential energy function in the mapping from a nondegenerate excited state, and in the mapping to a model system in an excited state, the nonuniqueness of the model system wave function. According to nondegenerate ground state HKS-DFT, there exists only one local effective potential energy function, obtained as the functional derivative of the unique ground state energy functional, that can generate the ground state density. Since the theorems of ground state HKS-DFT cannot be generalized to nondegenerate excited states, there could exist different local potential energy functions that generate the excited state density. The constrained-search version of HKS-DFT selects one of these functions as the functional derivative of a bidensity energy functional. In this paper, the authors show via Q-DFT that there exist an infinitenumber of local potential energy functions that can generate both the nondegenerate ground and excited state densities of an interacting system. This is accomplished by constructing model systems in configurations different from those of the interacting system. Further, they prove that the difference between the various potential energy functions lies solely in their correlation-kinetic contributions. The component of these functions due to the Pauli exclusion principle and Coulomb repulsion remains the same. The existence of the different potential energy functions as viewed from the perspective of Q-DFT reaffirms that there can be no equivalent to the ground state HKS-DFT theorems for excited states. Additionally, the lack of such theorems for excited states is attributable to correlation-kinetic effects. Finally, they show that in the mapping to a model system in an excited state, there is a nonuniqueness of the model system wave function. Different wave functions lead to the same density, each thereby satisfying the sole requirement of reproducing the interacting system density. Examples of the nonuniqueness of the potential energy functions for the mapping from both ground and excited states and the nonuniqueness of the wave function are provided for the exactly solvable Hooke’s atom. The work of others is also discussed.
Sahni, V., Slamet, M. & Xiao-Yin. P. (2007). Local effective potential theory: Nonuniqueness of potential and wave function. Journal of Chemical Physics, 120(20), 204106. doi: 10.1063/1.2733665