Mycobacterium infections are a global concern. The Mycobacterium genus’s 3 major groups of human pathogens include Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), Mycobacterium leprae, and nontuberculosis mycobacteria. The most clinically relevant pathogen and the cause of the disease, tuberculosis (TB), is M tuberculosis (Mtb), a member of the MTC. These species are all small, aerobic, acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and classified as fast- or slow-growers.
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