Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



Background: The use of long duration sonophoresis (LDS) for musculoskeletal injuries is a new and emerging treatment option for patients undergoing rehabilitation. The treatment is non-invasive, provides multi-hour mechanical stimulus expediating tissue regeneration and deep tissue heat along with local application of therapeutic compound for improved pain relief. The objective of this prospective case study was to evaluate real-world application of diclofenac LDS as an add-on intervention for patients non-responsive to physical therapy alone. Methods: Patient who failed to respond to at least 4 weeks of physical therapy were treated with the addition of 2.5% diclofenac LDS daily for 4 weeks. The numerical rating scale, global health improvement score, functional improvement, and treatment satisfaction index were measured to assess pain reduction and quality of life improvement from treatment. Patient outcome data was organized by injury type and patient age groups, and statistically analyzed with ANOVA to assess treatment differences within and between groups. The study was registered on NCT05254470. Result: The study included (n=135) musculoskeletal injury LDS treatments with no adverse events. Patients reported a mean pain reduction from baseline of 4.44 points (p<0.0001) and a 4.85point health improvement score after 4-week of daily sonophoresis treatment. There were no age-related differences in pain reduction, and 97.8% of patients in the study reported functional improvement with the addition of LDS treatment. Significant pain relief was observed in injuries related to tendinopathy, sprain, strain, contusion, bone fracture, and post-surgical recovery. Conclusion: The use of LDS significantly reduced pain and improved musculoskeletal function and quality of life for patients. Clinical findings suggest that LDS with 2.5% diclofenac is a viable therapeutic option for practitioners and should be further investigated.


PMID: 36865667; PMCID: PMC9977165






Global Journal of Orthopedics Research (GJOR)






Iris Publishers

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.