Although violence prevention has largely focused on students, national and state-level studies suggest that teacher-directed violence warrants attention by researchers, policy makers, and school stakeholders. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the empirical literature on teacher-directed violence, including the extent of the problem, types of violence teachers experience, measurement issues, and how this problem varies across perpetrators and social contexts. We specify recommendations for assessment, including developing and using reliable and valid measures to better understand teachers' experiences with violence. Violence prevention approaches are described, and we advocate for assessment and intervention that incorporate teacher experiences. Using a social-ecological model, we outline intervention strategies that address school violence that affects students, teachers, and administrators at the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem levels. Ultimately, we need to take the entire school ecology into account to reduce violence and create an effective teaching and learning environment where everyone feels safe.
McMahon, S.D., Martinez, A., Reddy, L., Espelage, D., & Anderman, E.M. (2017). Predicting and reducing aggression and violence toward teachers: Extent of the problem and why it matters. In P. Sturmey (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of violence and aggression Volume 3. Societal interventions (pp. 1335-1350). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.