The results of this study underscore the importance of organizational culture and suggest that TQM provides a way to build a culture that supports improvement. Top managers must focus on this role for TQM. Too often the need for quick returns on the effort leads to a focus on the "tools" and specific improvements and this emphasis can work against developing a supportive culture. Reengineering is an example of this phenomenon. Frustration with the time it takes to carry through on a TQM initiative caused firms to try reengineering, which, with its emphasis on outsiders and specialized personnel, works against employee confidence and involvement. There are indications in the data that suggest this impatience, and the results demonstrate that implementing reengineering can erode positive elements in the culture. This is probably best addressed by ensuring that process improvement efforts are initiated early in any TQM initiative and utilize TQM concepts such as employee involvement and good communications.
Gore, E.W. (1999). Organizational culture, TQM, and business process reengineering: An empirical comparison. Team Performance Management, 5(5), 164. doi: 10.1108/13527599910288993