Firms reporting under US GAAP are allowed to supplement financial information with non-GAAP measures. We examined 6 Firms in the chemical industry and looked at what information was presented (Dow, Du Pont, Monsanto, FMC, PPG, Praxair). We use the 2014 Annual Report so that we would have comparable data for all companies. For 2 firms we looked at numbers presented in Cap IQ and in Bloomberg and compared them to the numbers presented by the company (Dow and Du Pont). The numbers reported by the firms and the analysts differed greatly.
Boyer, B., Lim, R., & Lyons, B. (2016). A case study in the use and potential misuse of non-GAAP financial measures. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 18(3), 117-126.