It All Adds Up: Impact of the Flipped Classroom Approach related to Achievement, Student Satisfaction, Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Optimism in a Retail Math Course

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date

Fall 2021


Purpose of the Study: Experiential approaches to marketing education such as flipped instruction have been found to be effective in building analytical skills in marketing and retailing students, which are demanded by today's employers. Interest in student-focused techniques has been further intensified by the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. Recent studies have called for more research on student participation and motivation in flipped marketing-related math classes. The purpose of the current study is two-fold: 1) investigate the effectiveness of a flipped classroom approach in a retail mathematics course with regards to student achievement, satisfaction, self-efficacy, anxiety, and optimism, and 2) use these results to recommended best practices for teaching marketing and merchandising courses involving retail mathematics using a flipped classroom and/or remote instruction method. Method/Design and Sample: A merchandising mathematics course was redesigned with two flipped units and two lecture-based units. Forty-six students completed all units. A mixed methods approach utilizing both quantitative (survey instrument) and qualitative methods (focus groups) was used to investigate the hypotheses and research question. Results: Students opposed the flipped method and desired classroom interaction where exchanges with the professor and peers during lectures were vital to learning. Quiz scores indicated students performed better in the lecture-based units. Results suggest students are more successful and satisfied by a retail math course that features immediate interaction with instructors and instant feedback regarding mathematical calculations. Value to Marketing Educators: The present study provides more granularity to marketing educators regarding the efficacy of flipped class approaches, particularly for retail math-related courses.