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A nonemployer business is one that has no paid employees.The number and revenues of nonemployer businesses are increasing at a faster rate than other businesses, and they are an increasingly important alternative to other forms of entrepreneurship.Yet very little is known about these businesses. This study uses a survey of 1,600 MBA alumni to compare the entrepreneurial motivations of nonemployer entrepreneurs to conventional entrepreneurs and no entrepreneurs. The findings indicate that nonemployer entrepreneurs differ in important ways, and future research is needed to understand more fully this large and important group of entrepreneurs.